Preceptor Preparation Online Course - Advanced

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Essential Competencies of Preceptors: A Focus on Working with APRN Students

Module 6: Communication and Conflict Resolution


Advocacy Inquiry- A Questioning Technique for Uncovering Frames and Understanding the “Why”

Developed by Rudolph and colleagues (2007) for use in simulation-based debriefing, advocacy/inquiry is a questioning technique that can be used in all learning environments to dig deeper into uncovering the student’s cognitive frames and understand the thinking that drove their actions. It combines the preceptor’s observations and own thinking on the performance with an open-ended inquiry that encourages the student to share his or her thinking.

The figure below describes the pieces of the advocacy/inquiry structure. The figure can also be used as a cognitive aid when preparing to give feedback to a learner.

Because of the importance of providing high quality feedback that helps close performance gaps and facilitates the development of reflective practice, an evidence-based tool has been developed to assess the quality of feedback behaviors in clinical learning environments. The Feedback Assessment for Clinical Education (FACE) includes both a rater form and a handbook that can be used as a framework for helping to develop high quality feedback skills and for assessing the quality of feedback.

Resource: Download the attached document for a guide on how to structure a reflective feedback conversation and how advocacy/inquiry can be used within the context of the conversation.

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